Here’s a list of popular open source products that cannot currently be found in Fedora repos:
Once upon a time, it was part of my job to help these kinds of companies to work more closely with Fedora. We created the ISV SIG for this purpose. Karsten and I would go to trade shows and meet with various open source vendors, and we’d talk with them at length about the great benefit of leveraging the Fedora install base, and the power of “yum install YourCoolProduct”, and the general usefulness of building an ISV packaging community, and they’d nod and smile, and then we’d have a follow-up meeting or two to discuss the ins and outs of being in a distro. And then… well, nothing much would happen.
Now, as it turns out, I’m in a position to appreciate, and articulate, these issues from the ISV’s perspective.
What do the applications listed above have in common? A couple of key points.
Point One: they are all sponsored by companies, who use the open source projects as a base from which to build proprietary products.
Point Two: they all tend to be the primary application running on their machine — in other words, they are appliance stacks — and they need to limit variance in those stacks to help guarantee a good experience for their users.
It’s easy to claim, and many do, that these projects aren’t in Fedora (or Ubuntu, for that matter) because of Point One. In truth, Point Two is *way* more important.
There’s a great page on the Fedora Wiki that does a good job of discussing the potential gains and losses of putting your ISV application into Fedora. I’m going to go through those gains and losses, and share my opinions of them, now that I’m on the other side of the fenceline.
[GAIN] Reduced maintenance burden for all dependencies that are already packaged in Fedora: no need to ship security updates for those components.
This is a good potential gain, but note that it does not require the ISV to be *in* the distro to get this gain. It’s entirely possible to package *on top of* the distro, track the distro closely, and get all of these maintenance gains, without incurring the high cost of pushing packages into the distro and maintaining them. I suspect that this is precisely what many companies choose to do.
[GAIN] Code auditability: the Fedora packaging processes ensure that all code is described by metadata (i.e., spec files). The packaging tools allow this data to be queried in informative ways. ISVs don’t necessarily track this data otherwise.
Also true, but again, note that it’s possible to build RPMs and get the same advantages without putting those RPMs into the distro. There are two separate costs here: there’s the cost of building an RPM, which is comparatively low if you’ve got the source and an experienced packager at your disposal — but then there’s the cost of pushing the RPM into the distro and following the distro’s rigorous rules around versioning and namespacing and supportability, which is a *much* higher cost for the ISV. The gain from that additional cost must therefore be demonstrably compelling.
[GAIN] Availability of package-specific expertise: ISVs can consult other packagers about the upsteams of their dependencies. Each Fedora package maintainer acts as a known point of contact for their package’s upstream project.
This is very much a potential gain, if it’s true. But what happens when most of the packages aren’t yet in Fedora? This is especially problematic in the Java world, where there are tons and tons and tons of jar files that are not “packaged” as such in Fedora, but are still perfectly useful to the Java community in jar form. If the distro packaging expertise for a particular jar doesn’t yet exist yet, then the company who pushes the packages into the distro must take on the initial cost of becoming that expert. It’s definitely true that this expertise can be shared over time, and also true that such shared expertise is a long-term win — but the upfront cost is high, especially for a small company that has lots of competing priorities.
[GAIN] The trust of Fedora users: ISV products packaged in the Fedora way will be more warmly-received by Fedora users than standalone GNU/Linux binaries.
Citation needed. I mean, yes, I believe this too, but it’s a gain that’s difficult to quantify. The real benefit we’re trying to claim here is that “yum install foo” is a simpler and awesomer experience — and it is. But the difference between “yum install foo” and “wget foo-installer | sh”, which adds the ISV’s yum repo and gpg key and then kicks off “yum install foo”, is not really that great.
[GAIN] Stability on Fedora: standalone binaries break frequently because Fedora is such a fast-moving target. Built-from-source packages have proven much more stable, since incompatilities are caught during mass rebuilds.
This is a bit of a tautology. It’s essentially arguing that your ISV packages will build better with Fedora because you’re working to make them build better with Fedora. Which is true, but again, can be true by building *on top of* Fedora and not *in* Fedora. And it also only addresses build time failures, which, for an application, are failures that you’re likely to find immediately anyway if you’re doing proper build/test integration internally.
[GAIN] Bug triaging: Fedora users report bugs to Red Hat Bugzilla first; the package maintainer decides if it’s a packaging bug or an upstream bug. If it’s an upstream bug the packager will ideally create a minimal test case and send it to the upstream maintainers.
This is a strong *potential* gain, if the package maintainer is a trusted and responsible member of the community. But what if the package maintainer is an employee of the company, as is usually the case? It’s not a gain at all. And what if the package maintainer also maintains 20 other packages, and isn’t particularly responsive? Then it’s a net loss.
[LOSS] Binary dependency predictability: dependency updates may mean that the deployed set of components is not the same set of binaries the ISV tested during their release process.
Bingo! No more calls, please — we have a winner.
Here’s the thing: an ISV does not have the luxury of dealing with variance. We’re dealing with tons of bugs, every day, because we’re young companies, pushing as hard and as fast as we can to make our software experience better. When we’re trying to kill a crazy bug for users/customers, the first order of business is to reduce the uncertainties, and the easiest way to do that is to be *very* specific about configurations. This is especially true as the software increases in complexity.
We can assume high competence and good faith on the part of community maintainers, and still be relatively certain that those good actors will make changes, for good reasons, that will damage the ISV’s application stack in unpredictable and important ways. Software is mean-spirited like that.
This could, in theory, be mitigated by keeping multiple versions of things, and having better mechanisms for tracking those versions. This is something that Red Hat Network customers wanted for years, and finally got — the ability to install a very specific package manifest that is not “all latest packages”, but “these specific package versions”. But Linux distros don’t work that way, for good or ill.
In theory, everyone should always be running the latest version of things. In practice, that can be very difficult — and it can be *especially* difficult for the ISV when multiple distros have different notions of what the latest version is, and *exceptionally* difficult when those package manifests can change without warning, and outside of your control.
Maintaining a functioning product in multiple cutting-edge distros, with different release cycles and different dependencies, requires a serious, serious commitment to continuous integration and testing. I believe that Eucalyptus has a better process for this than most — and still it will be a tremendous challenge for us to keep up with two different fast-moving distros in Fedora and Ubuntu.
[LOSS] Unity with Windows release process: someone on the ISV’s team will need to be a Fedora contributor or they will need to recruit an external packager.
You can replace “Unity with Windows release process” with “Unity with Ubuntu release process” and the problem is the same. There are huge differences, of course, between a Windows release process and a Linux release process — but even staying in the Linux world, there’s a considerable difference between the Ubuntu release process and the Fedora release process, and expertise in the one in no way guarantees success in the other.
[LOSS] Ability to customize dependencies arbitrarily: there are rare cases where Fedora ships different versions of the same component for compatibility but in general this is strongly discouraged; custom patches should be sent upstream or eliminated by patching the product’s code to not require them.
[LOSS] Download counting/tracking: if an ISV provides a tar-based distribution from their website, they can track counts and/or emails. This may be important for their marketing department.
* * * * *
It looks pretty grim in the end, doesn’t it? Well, it’s not as dark as all that. There are legitimate ways for the committed ISV to bridge the gaps over time:
1. Commit to building RPMs (and dpkgs), from source, the right way, for the ISV product, and making those source packages available to whomever wants them. There are legitimate reasons for an open source company to do this, and it’s a necessary precondition to being in the distros anyway.
2. Release their Linux versions as add-on yum/dpkg repos. Of course, this also means being able to supersede/obsolete distro packages with foo packages, but this is easily done by maintaining separate namespaces.
3. Continue to work with other ISV vendors on packaging best practices at every opportunity, even if those packages don’t immediately end up in the distro.
4. Explore development builds that depend on the latest packages, available from wherever. One of the great advantages of Fedora, and other fast-moving distros, is that they do a great job of managing the future. We don’t want to live in the future, but we certainly want to have our eye on it, and that’s a great reason to continue to *try* be in Fedora — but we also need to make it clear to potential users that the future and the present don’t always see eye-to-eye, and that can be difficult messaging to convey.
The truth of the matter is that not every user understands the intricacies of the open source development model, and most ISVs in a competitive market get one shot to connect with their potential customers. One. Which means that the ISVs are going to do everything they possibly can to make sure that they’ve got control over how that experience goes, at the lowest possible development cost.
Fedora can afford to live right on the bleeding edge because they’ve got CentOS/RHEL to fall back on. Not everyone has that luxury.
(p.s. looking forward to talking more about this at FUDCon. Also: the drinking.)